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Brian Schiff’s Blog

Injury Prevention, Sports Rehab & Performance Training Expert

One of the benefits of being an online columnist for PFP Magazine is having an opportunity to test out the latest training tools in the fitness industry. recently, I received a PowerWave 2.0 Constrainer from Power Systems. I really liked the versatility and ease of use with this particular apparatus. It is portable, yet challenging and offers various models for the end user.

I have included the two videos I put together for my column ‘Functionally Fit’ that emphasize how to use the PowerWave to perform cleans and the bus driver. I think you will find that the PowerWave 2.0 Crosstrainer is much like the TRX in that it offers lots of options in a limited footprint if you want to work out at home. You can target strength, explosive training and metabolic conditioning using it.

Check out the videos below:

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Blood flow restriction (BFR) therapy/training is one of the newer and more exciting techniques being used in the sports medicine field. I received training with Owens Recovery Science and have been utilizing personalized blood flow restriction (PBFR) therapy in my clinic since November 2017 using the Delfi personalized tourniquet system (PTS).

What exactly is BFR?

It is the application of a specialized tourniquet system to the proximal arm or leg, which is inflated to a personalized and specific pressure to reduce blood flow to an exercising extremity. For the lower extremity, the occlusion pressure is 80%, whereas the upper extremity pressure is usually set at 50%.

The application is brief and intermittent, usually lasting about 6 minutes per exercise. For most clients, a total of 3-4 exercises are used leading to 24-30 minutes based on the specific exercises prescribed. Typically, to increase strength and hypertrophy a person would need to lift a significant amount of weight (greater than or equal to 60% of a 1 repetition maximum). With PBFR you can create significant strength and hypertrophy gains with loads as low as 20% 1RM.

We utilize the Delfi tourniquets as suggested with the Owens training course. You can see the PTS and tourniquets below:


What is the science behind this training tool?

The landmark study by Takarada published in 2000 revealed that significant hypertrophy gains are seen with occlusion and the use of lighter training loads. There is an increase in muscle protein synthesis as well as growth hormone secretion. Below you find some links to abstracts from Takarada’s work:

In addition to hypertrophy, there also appears to be an application for preventing disuse atrophy simply using occlusion. This may prove very beneficial for clients who are non-weightbearing after an injury or surgery, yet not able to perform much resistance training.

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It is that time of the year again. Everyone wants to lose weight and trim their waistlines. Abs, abs and more abs, right? I am all about some core training, but I am always concerned with some of the ab variations that I see commonly used at the gym and in group fitness environments.

Many exercise enthusiasts have tight hip flexors and poor abdominal control. Sprinkle in a history of low back pain or a prior disc injury along with straight leg abdominal exercises and now you have the perfect recipe for a possible back injury. Why is that? Well, the psoas originates from the lumbar spine and attaches to the lesser trochanter on the hip.


In the picture above, you can see how the muscle impacts the spine and hips. As you lower your legs toward the ground during an ab exercise, there is a reverse muscle action that takes place and resultant anterior shear force exerted on the lumbar spine. When the abdominal muscles cannot resist this motion, the lumbar spine hyperextends.

Many people will even report feeling a pop in the front of the hip while doing scissor kicks, leg lowering or throw downs. In many cases, this may be the tendon running/rubbing on the pectineal eminence. Unfortunately, long lever and/or ballistic abdominal exercises with inherently poor core stability/strength, fatigue and gravity working against you will create significant load and strain on the lumber spine. Ever wonder why you wanted to put your hands under your back while doing 6 inches? Your brain is trying to flatten the spine using your hands as it knows the hyperlordotic position is uncomfortable and threatening.

In light of this, I put together a little video for PFP Magazine revealing a safer way to work your abs and prevent undue stress and strain on your back. Check it out below.

Keep these modifications and progressions in mind the next time you hit the gym or a boot camp class focusing on core/ab training.

Many athletes and clients I work with lack adequate pillar and shoulder stability. Whether this is related to acquired laxity, inherent instability or simply a lack of proper muscular control, I think it is important to assess baseline stability in anyone performing overhead lifts, ballistic upper body training and in overhead athletes.

In my clinic, I work with lots of baseball players, swimmers and volleyball players. Most females tend to struggle with hyper mobility (loose shoulder joints) whereas many of my males tend to have soft tissue tightness and in some cases limited internal rotation (GIRD). Both males and females tend to have a need to improve dynamic shoulder and pillar (core) stability to reduce injury risk and optimize mechanics.

The following exercise is one I use to both assess anti-rotational control/stability as well as train the body to resist torsional forces. In the video below, you can see how to assess your baseline strength and stability.

This exercise is very effective in working improving glenohumeral and scapular stability as well as enhancing shoulder, torso and hip stability. In my opinion, athletes with poor stability in this assessment should not perform unilateral Olympic lifting or ballistic overhead training as they may lack the necessary neuromuscular control to execute the proper movement pattern.

I just returned from the Sports Physical Therapy Section’s annual conference in Las Vegas. There were plenty of great presentations from various industry leaders. I thought I would take a moment and summarize a few key points from the conference that may be helpful to clinicians and consumers alike.

The conference theme was the power of innovation. Hot topics covered were blood flow restriction therapy, cupping, dry needling, eccentric loading for tendiopathy, weighted ball training, and kinesiotaping and laser therapy to name a few. Below are some takeaways worth mentioning:

  • Blood flow restriction (BFR) training can be used to help reduce muscle atrophy after surgery, improve muscle protein synthesis and provide a way to increase strength with loads as low as 20-30% of 1RM for clients unable to tolerate heavy loading
  • BFR is not superior to nor a substitute for high intensity training (need to push weight to see best strength gains), but it can be used as an adjunct to training. It also produces an increase in IGHF1 after exercise.
  • BFR should not be used before higher intensity activities such as HIT, plyometrics, SAQ, etc.
  • Clinicians and strength coaches should consider Olympic lifting derivatives as an alternative to traditional lifts if there is concern with catch phases or biomehcanical/physical concerns. Examples include high pulls/snatch pulls instead of traditional cleans and snatches.
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